Old War Office redevelopment
GEOFEM performed a 3D finite element analysis of the proposed basement construction to predict deflections in the Grade II* listed building and to support the structural engineers in the design of the sub-structures, piled foundations and permanent dewatering.
Barts Square Development
A 3D finite element analysis was performed of the raft foundations to two buildings in this large redevelopment to predict settlements (including critical party wall settlements) and to provide structural forces and coefficients of subgrade reaction to support structural design of the raft foundation.
Battersea Dogs and Cats Home
A 2D finite element analysis was performed to predict the future effects of construction of the Northern Line extension on the basement to the new Tealby Building and check that the design of the basement wall accommodated these effects.
Westgate Shopping Centre redevelopment
Finite element analyses were performed of the existing and new foundations and basements to predict ground movements in particular between existing and proposed parts of shopping centre, and to provide subgrade reaction coefficients to support structural design of the raft foundations. Groundwater flow analyses were also undertaken to support the design of the permanent basement dewatering.
GEOFEM performed a large pile group settlement analysis using 3D finite element analysis to predict differential settlements between The Tower and adjacent lightweight buildings as well as those resulting from re-use of under-reamed bearing piles and loading of new straight-shafted piles during the redevelopment.
A ground movement analysis was performed for the proposed New Marlborough School development in Chelsea, London to predict the deflection of an underlying relief sewer and to support structural design of the substructures.
Welland Bio Power
GEOFEM performed a 3D finite element analysis of the raft foundation to a new waste gasification plant to predict its settlement and distortion due to loading and adjacent earthworks, as well as to provide coefficients of subgrade reaction to support its structural design.
Douglas Park New South Wales, Australia
Geofem conducted a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometric survey for the greater area surrounding Douglas Park for ground stability monitoring purposes during mining activity. Ground displacement was identified (areas in red) coinciding with the mining operations. Ground displacement estimates from satellite radar analyses were in agreement with in situ surveying data.
Spaceborne radar is a popular source of data for pollution surveying, particularly for oil spills. Radar data offers the capability of monitoring oil discharges from ship traffic and offshore operations in a weather and cloud coverage independent manner enabling continuous tracking information.
GEOFEM performed a 3D finite element analysis of a raft foundation on ground conditions consisting of intact chalk and highly variable solution feature infill. This was used to predict differential settlements in the sensitive glass-panelled structure and to support the structural design of the raft.
Forensic investigation, basement wall collapse
GEOFEM performed an on-site forensic investigation and finite element analysis to determine the cause of collapse of a 10m high King-pile basement retaining wall adjacent to an existing building in the centre of Nicosia.
River Plate House
GEOFEM performed an assessment of various foundation options for a new structure to be built on the site. The aim was to reuse as many as possible of the 130 existing under-reamed piles, but the new proposed structure had a significantly different load distribution compared with the existing structure, and some changes to the basement geometry were also proposed. This all required a complex model in Plaxis 3D to be set up, simulating construction of the existing basement, piles and loading as well as its demolition and subsequent construction of the various foundation options.
Grand Assembly Area
The Grand Assembly Area (GAA) of Drydocks World-Dubai (DWD) is a large ground bearing slab supported by calcareous sand and is used for the assembly and subsequent launch of new ships and rigs. It was operating close to its maximum allowable working load but DWD wanted to investigate whether, by more advanced analysis, the allowable working load on the existing slab could be increased.
GEOFEM were appointed to specify and direct settlement monitoring of the slab during the launching of a new 8000 tonne rig (pictured right) and subsequently to carry out a 3D finite element analysis of the slab. GEOFEM advised that the allowable working load could be increased, which has allowed heavier ships and rigs to be assembled and launched, significantly improving the productivity of the existing structure.
Refer to ICE Proceedings Geotechnical Engineering for more information.
Ain Dubai Ferris Wheel
GEOFEM performed 3D finite element analysis of the ring crane base used to erect the world’s largest Ferris wheel to assess its deflection located close to the edge of the reclaimed island.
Prelude FLNG Turret
The largest piece of Shell’s new Prelude FLNG Turret was constructed in Dubai and needed to be loaded onto a barge for transport to South Korea. Geofem managed the ground investigation, numerical analysis and site monitoring, and then interpreted the findings to judge whether the quay wall at Drydocks World Dubai could safely support the weight of this 4,000 tonne monster as it was transported onto the barge.
Check out this time-lapse video of the operation to see if Geofem got it right!
GEOFEM performed a 3D finite element analysis of the piled raft foundation, LPG tanks, reinforced soil wall and mound fill to optimise the pile arrangement to minimise differential settlement during filling of the tanks and to support the structural design of the raft.
GEOFEM was a core partner in the ground-breaking EASIT project, funded by the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme. EASIT developed the Competency Tracker and Professional Simulation Engineer (PSE) certification for engineering analysis and simulation now adopted and maintained by the international association NAFEMS. Thanks to the EASIT project, the skills required to perform engineering analysis and simulation in industry have been defined and analysts and engineering managers alike can track achievement of competency and manage work-based training effectively. GEOFEM played a key role in assessing industry needs in this area and helped to ensure that the project deliverables met these needs as closely as possible.
Modelling soil-geogrid interaction
Current methods of modelling geogrid layers in finite element analyses often significantly under-predict their performance when compared with field trials and monitored structures. GEOFEM is working with Tensar to develop new modelling methods that provide more realistic predictions and which realise the full potential of geogrid-stabilised soil.
South West coastline of the Isle of Wight
Geofem conducted an Interferometric survey using Synthetic Aperture Radar in the SW coast of the Isle of Wight, UK. The primary study area is the Roughlands Landslide located south of Brook village. A set of 40 Sentinel-1 scenes for the period between January 1st, 2017 and December 21st, 2017 were acquired and processed to determine the ground movement along the coastline. The Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) Interferometric Stacking technique was applied.
Fujairah – Dubai Freeway
Geofem was commissioned to perform an interferometric analysis of the Fujairah Freeway which connects Dubai in the west to Al Fujairah on the east coast in the United Arab Emirates, using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Analyses were performed using Persistent Scatters covering the period between December 2014 to November 2018. Displacement estimates were decomposed into vertical and horizontal directions.
Monitoring of Dams
Geofem performed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis (PSI) on Kourris Dam in Cyprus. Dams are generally good scatterers giving highly accurate displacement results. Analysis between 2014 and 2018 showed movements matching those obtained at discrete points by in situ measurements. The big advantage with the remote PSI technique is that many points can be monitored, at regular intervals (every 6 days) at very low cost compared with in situ monitoring.
Monitoring of Infrastructure
Satellite data can help to monitor large urban areas for ground movement, mapping and land cover changes using change detection techniques. Critical infrastructure monitoring using satellites has become more and more popular for both economic and safety reasons. At Geofem we apply different techniques for monitoring the movement of buildings and infrastructure.
Geofem is the coordinator of the RANTKAT project funded by the European Regional Development Funds, the European Structural Funds, the Republic of Cyprus and the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism. The project aims at developing a landslide risk evaluation tool using ground movement measurements obtained from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and considering geotechnical and other parameters of the examined areas. The project involves a GIS interface for hosting a landslide risk map.
Pissouri Landslide Project
Pissouri, a village between the cities of Limassol and Paphos in Cyprus, has long suffered from landslides over the years. Geofem performed ground movement monitoring using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) in the village of Pissouri to evaluate the risk of landslides in the area.
Pretoria-Johannesburg Gautrain rail line
The Gautrain, the commuter rail line that opened in 2012 in South Africa connects Johannesburg and Pretoria (80-kilometre). The area is characterised by sinkholes. Geofem conducted an investigation using radar satellite techniques to identify areas of potential sink hole hazard.
Water Quality Characteristics
A system for the automated determination of water turbidity was developed at Geofem where values of turbidity can be extracted at study areas during each satellite pass. This is applicable to dams, lakes and sea. Such an analysis was performed at the Evretou, Aspokremos and Kourris dams in Cyprus.
GEOFEM was a core partner in the EU funded ANDROID project aimed at increasing society's resilience to disasters of human and natural origin. It was based on an inter-disciplinary consortium of partners that comprised scientists from applied, human, social and natural disciplines. ANDROID set out to achieve this aim through a series of inter-linked projects and led by a sub-group of international partners.
We apply satellite remote sensing data processing and earth observation to determine crop irrigation demand based on crop characteristics to optimise crop cultivation. Crop specific algorithms are developed to enable automated crop irrigation demand estimation based on growth stage and crop characteristics, specific for the study area.
‘Risk Evaluation Tool for Assessing the Risk of Uplift and Subsidence from Swelling Clays using Radar and Geotechnical Data (RET-UPS)
This is a project funded by the European Space Agency under the 2nd PECS – Cyprus Call. It is commenced in May 2019 and will run for two years.
Swelling clays experience large volume variations as moisture levels change due to seasonal changes. These cause subsidence and heave and hence damage to buildings and infrastructure. This geohazard is widely referred to as swelling-shrinking clays. Even though the hazard of swelling-shrinking clays has not received much attention compared to other natural hazards, the cost from the damages outweighs those caused by floods, landslides and earthquakes combined. It is therefore vital to derive a means for the detection, estimation and prediction of ground movement caused by expansive clays. The project aims to develop a Risk Evaluation Tool in a GIS environment which will enable the categorization of areas covered by swelling clays into different risk levels using a synergy of SAR technology with geotechnical, geological and soil moisture data. For this purpose, InSAR technologies (using Sentinel-1 SLC data), optical data (Sentinel-2) and SAR data (Sentinel-1 GRD) will be used together with in situ data for deriving soil moisture estimations, geotechnical and geological soil characteristics.
Urban centre UK
Geofem performed a PSI analysis in an urban area in the UK for monitoring structural movements. InSAR enables sub-millimetric accuracy of vertical and horizontal displacement of large pixels, identifying patterns of movement in urban areas.
Road network monitoring
A study of a road infrastructure network was performed using the SBAS technique for a dataset covering the period 2016 to 2018. This enabled the identification of road network corridors with higher displacement values to prioritise maintenance operations.
Illawarra Coal Mining
Geofem performed an SBAS analysis using a dataset of Sentinel-1 SLC images for the period between December 2016 and July 2018. Results showed the distribution of displacements and the extent of area affected.
Subsidence and uplift due to swelling clays
Geofem performed an SBAS analysis on a dataset covering the period of 2016-2018 in an area characterised by swelling clays. Results showed differential settlements with uplift during the winter season and subsidence during summer.
Interferometric analysis following an earthquake enables determination of the ground movements and extent of areas affected.
GEOFEM coordinated the COGAN project funded by the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme which tailored the deliverables of the EASIT project to geotechnical numerical analysis. With the other project partners, activities included surveying the needs of industry, defining the competences needed to perform geotechnical numerical analysis, developing an web-based platform to look-up and record achievement of competences and the creation of E-learning modules.